“Every participant must have a pseudonym...” About the political attitudes of young people in Kuzbass in the middle of the 1950.

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Annotation / Аннотация
Analyzed by the author of the story about how local authorities in the Kuzbass "reveal" another "anti-Soviet underground youth organization", and the former rural school children, "underground" taken "in the development.
Анализируемый автором документ повествует о том, как в Кузбассе местные органы «раскрывают» очеред-ную «антисоветскую подпольную молодежную организацию», а бывшие сельские школьники-«подпольщики» взяты «в разработку».

Keywords / Ключевые слова
Stalinism. Special services. Forms of resistance. Documentary sources. Political mood youth. Сталинизм, спец-службы, формы сопротивления, документальные источники, политические настроения молодежи.

It was an interesting time – summer of 1957 In Moscow – the World festival of youth and connected with it in the Soviet society iridescent hopes, and in Kuzbas - local bodies for another "open" one a little «anti-Soviet underground youth organization». Among them were some "organization" of senior pupils, pupils of one of country schools. During the investigation rural schoolboys - "underground workers" (by then already were) were taken «in working out» but as on a court yard stood nevertheless 1957, instead of 1937, business, apparently, has ended «preventive actions s». The document – a 16-page note under a signature stamp «absolutely secret th», signed by chief УКГБ across the Kemerovo region V.Nikitin and naprav-lennaja to the first secretary of Kemerovo regional committee S.M.Piliptsu's CPSU as a result showed up.

But before acquainting readers of magazine «The Herald of an Archivist» with this historic document nowadays stored in the State archive of the Kemerovo region (GAKO), it is necessary to make some preliminary remarks.
The note dazzles with concrete surnames of “participants of the organization” literally, witnesses also those whom usually named “informers”. The considerable part of these people, apparently, is living till now. Also there are no doubts that to anybody from them, to put it mildly, would not given pleasure any reminder on this old story connected with their youth

It is not hard to understand these people: nobody from “participants of the organization” were actually a man against the USSR. The most part of young men were patriots of the Native land – the USSR, and by the way, have lived the life quite adequately. In it readers should not have any doubts.

Therefore telling about the maintenance of note UKGB, in full conformity with legislation about protection of the confidential information, surnames of the majority of "figurants" are replaced by any way picked up capital letters, some fragments of the text are lowered. The exception is made by surnames of two main "characters" of this business which was not objecting to the given publication. Eventually, matter is not in concrete names, and in showing spirit of that recent epoch, ambiguous and discrepant, and at the same time to remind of some unworthy methods of work which, however, never were a secret for the population. And unworthy they are represented to us because were applied not against spies, saboteurs and other “experienced enemies socialism”, and against, as a matter of fact, children. Such should not repeat more, and in it the basic sense of the publication sees.

The document begins in the best detective traditions. “In December, 1956 Management of special departments of KGB at SM of the USSR on Far East military district reported us that in conversation with operative workers military man А, the native of the Kemerovo region, has told about existence in Berezovsky high school of Kemerovsky region of the secret youth organization consisting of pupils of 8-10 classes. А named 12 members of this organization and has informed that the organization had the charter or the program, let out hand-written magazine. The check made by us established that named А. person really were at various times trained in Berezovsky high school. A part from them, having left school, has left in various cities of the country. On apartment its charter and the program has been withdrawn from parents А 3 hand-written magazines belonging to the organization and last has been written by the code number. The charter and program analysis and articles placed in withdrawn magazines has shown that activity of the organization had anti-Soviet character. In the program, in particular, advance the demagogical requirement to struggle for full equality, improvement of cultural and material level of workers, for the 6-sentry the working day, creation of illegal societies. In some articles the slander on Communist party of Soviet Union which now has ostensibly regenerated contains and is not capable to conduct behind itself people, and also on a policy of the party and the Soviet government”.

“By official and secret-service way, appears further in the document, 19 participants of the organization […] now are revealed, 9 from them live to Kemerovo. All participants the organizations are members of VLKSM». The detailed list of these persons with instructions of a surname, a name, a patronymic, year of a birth, a place of work, study (or services in the Soviet army) is here.

Further in the note text specific receptions, characteristic for bodies of that period are stated, “Enlisted from among members of the organization the agent “Melnikova” has informed that the organization has been created in the middle of November, 1953 at the initiative of the pupil of 9 classes of Berezovsky school Nosorev Victor Nikolaevich. Involving in the organization passed under the pretext of circle creation on which the behavior of teachers and other questions connected with a life of school will understand ostensibly.

The first meeting of the organization, by Melnikova, has taken place on Nosorev’s apartment. Before the beginning of meeting Nosorev sent one of the present on street with mission to warn them in case of occurrence in apartment someone from extraneous persons. For it has acted as though with a keynote speech. The primary goal of a circle, Nosorev has told, studying of history, Marxism-Leninism that everyone has learnt as much as possible is. The circle should help to look to each of present on a life reasonably. It is necessary it continued to look, whether the policy of the party and the governments is correct, and this question to solve.

Nosorev also said that members of a circle should be present on state-farm and a kolkhoz meetings, to listen to attentively all that there speak, what questions dare - and then these questions to discuss at itself in a mug, to express of opinion, whether correctly they dare that, according to members of a circle, it would be possible to make better. A circle problem, according to Nosorev, discussion of behaviour of teachers of school is also, whether right they teach. Members of a circle should struggle for expansion of the numbers. Nosorev considered that circle work remained in deep secret has told, for this purpose each participant should have a pseudonym, in the organization the code number will be developed. In the end of the performance Nosorev has read the charter which has been accepted unanimously. For everyone the participant has selected to itself a pseudonym, directing bodies organization have been chosen: a three and the seven. The last should supervise over all activity of organization.

“At the third meeting, under her information, spoken in public with the report R. In the report acted the life Of state farm" New system "and Berezovsky of collective farm was described, activity of its heads was criticized, the facts of a bad financial position of some collective farmers and workers of state farm were mentioned. What about members of a circle, the agent Melnikova has told that the founder and ideological head was Nosorev. The Most active participation in activity organization after Nosoreva, was G. which was on friendly terms with Nosorev. It on the instructions of the Nosorev selected girls for the organization, preliminary talked to them […], consisting-la in a three and an organization editorial board”.

And further: “Agent Melnikova has been directed on studying of behavior of participants organization, living in Kemerovo. On May, 6th Melnikova has informed that she meted with D. On an appearance on May, 16th Melnikova told that it concerning the organization talked to D. The question on the Hungarian events and youth participation in counterrevolution activity in Hungary was mentioned. About the maintenance of conversation with D. and activity of organization wrote she in the report from May, 16th, 1957:
“D. has answered that Nosorev well understood the politician, but hardly he wanted it (the Hungarian variant). The source has objected it, having told that meetings at us were secret, and itself wrote article concerning the government. D. has stated that Nosorev wanted to prepare us to that we critically concerned errors of the government and because in the government too there can be errors, and has given an example about Stalin's errors. We did not know these errors, and he knew them, and then they were published […] D. has told that the circle existed till spring of 1955 the Circle also conducted lessons as has told Д, assorted political economy and dialectics questions. It became therefore that members of a circle to prepare politically. D. has told that by the end of employment a circle visited ever less persons. Last session was before tests for river bank of Tom'. At this meeting as has told D., there was an arrangement to create the same mugs and to support among them communication. On a question, whether there is such circle now, D. has answered, [that], apparently, is not present. On a question, whether she corresponds with members of a circle, D. has answered that corresponds […], but in letters in the relation of a circle no hints existing. D. has there and then stated that being in a mug recently, stated the disagreement with a direction of its work, told about it”.

“In May of this year, it is informed further in a note, we had been enlisted the agent Gorelov, so the former participant of the specified organization. In the course of recruiting conversation Gorelov, basically, has confirmed that has informed us on the organization the agent Melnikova. He has told that the organization was secret that at meetings of this organization political problems were discussed, existing usages were criticized, the program and the charter of this organization, with a view of conspiracy in work each member of the organization selected to itself a pseudonym. Under Gorelov's statement, political problems basically raised by Nosorev. On one of such meetings when members of the organization were going to meet New 1954, Nosorev in the performance has subjected to criticism CPSU activity, said that in party ostensibly there is no democracy in witness whereof has given an example that during the period with 1939 for 1952 congresses were not convoked; local party workers ostensibly do not know agriculture, local conditions and do not try to study them; in a collective farm management semiliterate people, drunkards who disorganize collective farms are ostensibly put forward. Here Nosorev proved unprofitability of a socialist way of conducting country economy, confirming it with that ostensibly state farm "New building" all time work-et is unprofitable. In the end of the performance Nosorev has set the task to bring up itself politic, to have a close connection with youth of state farm "New building" and Berezovsky a kolkhoz, to be present at state-farm and collective-farm meetings, to act on them with criticism of existing usages”.

Last time members of the organization have gathered in the spring (month Gorelov precisely does not remember) 1955 […] At meeting was found out that many did not summarise the literature; the Noso-roar began to be indignant with it then against it have acted again F. and R., they were supported by A. They have suggested not to gather in general any more as and economy nobody understands philosophy. Against organization dissolution Nosorev who proved has acted that the circle should work what to study philosophy and political economy, looking for political problems it is necessary, and warned members of a circle that in the future they will understand its correctness. However the majority of members of the organization have supported its dissolution, have voted for it […]

After that members of the organization did not gather any more.”At least I, - have told Go-relov, - itself was not at any meetings, did not hear about them from others» […] Continuing, the agent has told that how much it in a business course, the organization as that, now not exist, and members of its any work do not spend”.

“Characterizing members of the organization, the agent has informed that the leading role in creation organization was played by Nosorev, all activity of the organization went it. Nosorev aspired to politicize the organization itself has been adjusted obviously anti-Soviet. In all supported Nosorev and actively operated in organization G. which entered into a three, participated in editing of magazines, acted with reports. In one of docks-frets, the agent how much remembers, G. opposed bureaucratize which has entangled яко party and machinery of state, resulted bureaucratize and red tape examples and suggested to struggle with it”.

The general conclusion which we find in a note, following: “Considering that the data available for us about activity of the specified organization deserves a close attention, working out of participants of the organization we conduct now in a direction, whether the organization as a unit operates now, and whether its members anti-Soviet spend works”.

However activity of bodies was not limited to this direction. “Simultaneously with working out of participants of the organization, - it is informed in the document, - we study communications of Nosorev. So, on orientation of Special department of military unit where serves Nosorev, he corresponded with Ljudizhinsky Lyudmila Alekseevna. Ljudizhinsky wrote in one of [the] letters to Nosorev that she with girlfriends reads his letters, admires some thoughts and conclusions of Nosorev. Last has written to it to the answer, that it has destroyed at least the sharpest letters». And as the resume: “Ljudizhinsky by [us] has been established. It has appeared the student of the first course historic-philological faculty the Kemerovo teacher's college”.

And further all was started turning under the familiar scheme: “Directed on studying Ljudizhinsky the agent O. has found out that Ljudizhinsky has got acquainted with Nosorev in village Old Hearts where Nosorev of veins till 1953, and the father Ljudizhinsky worked as the director of seven-year school. Since 1953 Ljudizhinsky with Nosorevym corresponded, occasionally met.
Ljudizhinsky to the agent O. has told that till March of this year she corresponded with Nosorev. He wrote to it, on expression Ljudizhinsky, scientific, political letters, moralized about facts of life. All it seemed to it boring. Besides against correspondence with Nosorev mother Ljudizhinsky, therefore Ljudizhinsky acted, as she has told O., wrote to Nosorev the letter, in which informed what to correspond with it does not want, but in the future ostensibly abused itself for this letter […]

The Ljudizhinsky has shown to the agent O. letters from Nosorev, one of them has allowed to read. On it the agent on an appearance has informed the following, “Source read one letter of Nosorev, which has chosen itself Ljudizhinsky. This letter was the answer to the letter Ljudizhinsky with blame that she does not understand it particularly-political views, and that all its thoughts on struggle are caused by its unaccommodating character. In the letter Nosorev wrote that he is surprised by that she does not understand its sights as he considered as its ideological friend. Further in the letter Nosorev stated the sights. He wrote that it against dandies, against bureaucrats, against those who gets the big wages, i.e. against wrong distributions of payment for work. Here it results examples: writer Erenburg, actor Zharova which have great sums of money and live magnificently. In the letter there is further a thought that such as Khruschev, all these lacks cover. After reading of the letter the source has taken an interest at Ljudizhinsky, what does she think of that Nosorev writes. She has told that to it has bothered to listen to abstract notations, and a game-kretno how to struggle with these lacks, he does not write. She also did not begin it to write to It”.

“By studying Ljudizhinsky through the agent О. it has been found out that that is adjusted recently pessimistically, states discontent with teaching statement at teacher's training college”.

And as a finishing chord of a note: “on May, 18th from Ljudizhinsky to Nosoreva come the letter in which she writes, “I wish to leave institute, I will go to work. In institute all system of board and teaching […] Yes is not pleasant to me, I represented institute, as they say, a science temple, and really […] And home will come, so not a beam-she. When you see lie, meanness, mercenary calculation, oh and hard! […] to Throw institute, to leave to work? But after all I wish to study! Very much! I much, a lot of the nobility want. And that teach to us, seems to me that it is old and a little. No, not I one so think, exist people which think precisely also. Where the present? Whether there is it […] Here you wrote about struggle much. Instead of whether it seems to you that struggle your all was reduced to conversations. You excuse me for frankness, but I sometimes simply hated you that you criticized that and another […], but after all you never wrote what to do, but only criticized harm, coldly, «from a shoulder» […] I see much and I hear such of what I can not think easy, indifferently. You here study all Marx, Engels, Lenin […] I Understand that without knowledge of the theory will make nothing. But it seems to me that you which in what have bent, the word of honor. I sometimes not understand also do not understand, to what you aspire that want […] I wish to understand you, I want! You understand! Once again I repeat that I do not set as the purpose to be with you, I set as the purpose to be with you. Also I will be! Only I very much ask – to help me a little bit with it”.
In conclusion of the note the chief Kemerovo УКГБ was more than is laconic: «Ljudizhinsky by us it is taken in working out. Other communications of Nosorev” are besides studied also.

In the appendix to note UKGB have been listed: “the charter, the organization program, inquiries about decoding of the code number, a copy of articles placed in magazine – all on 25 sheets”, but, unfortunately, all these documents in archival materials former Kemerovo обкома the CPSU have not remained.

Thus in our opinion note UKGB draws a picture of moods of the Soviet youth of the middle of 1950th, moods quite communistic. Were that historical realities, it is pleasant to somebody or not. The further destiny and Nosorev, and Ljudizhinsky, judging by some data, has developed outwardly safely. It, people firm left belief, finally was on the way with the Soviet power. Nobody has planted them: probably, employees of bodies of new generation quite understood, with whom deal. Having served in the Soviet army, Nosorev has returned to Kuzbas. Subsequently it has ended historical faculty of the Kemerovo teacher's college, has entered party. People-Zhinsky, despite some obstacles, has ended philological faculty of the same high school. Also there are no doubts that they have lived the life adequately and fairly, as well as all their generation, working for the blessing of the great country, great, despite on any internal problems, contradictions, losses, collisions and contentions. Here about what has told and at what not free reflexions were guided by this historical document which has reflected an originality of that epoch.